Bilinear Factor Matrix Norm Minimization for Robust PCA: Algorithms and Applications


The heavy-tailed distributions of corrupted outliers and singular values of all channels in low-level vision have proven effective priors for many applications such as background modeling, photometric stereo and image alignment. And they can be well modeled by a hyper-Laplacian. However, the use of such distributions generally leads to challenging non-convex, non-smooth and non-Lipschitz problems, and makes existing algorithms very slow for large-scale applications. Together with the analytic solutions to p-norm minimization with two specific values of p, i.e., p = 1/2 and p = 2/3, we propose two novel bilinear factor matrix norm minimization models for robust principal component analysis. We first define the double nuclear norm and Frobenius/nuclear hybrid norm penalties, and then prove that they are in essence the Schatten-1/2 and 2/3 quasi-norms, respectively, which lead to much more tractable and scalable Lipschitz optimization problems. Our experimental analysis shows that both our methods yield more accurate solutions than original Schatten quasi-norm minimization, even when the number of observations is very limited. Finally, we apply our penalties to various low-level vision problems, e.g., text removal, moving object detection, image alignment and inpainting, and show that our methods usually outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence