Training Neural Networks by Lifted Proximal Operator Machines


We present the lifted proximal operator machine (LPOM) to train fully-connected feed-forward neural networks. LPOM represents the activation function as an equivalent proximal operator and adds the proximal operators to the objective function of a network as penalties. LPOM is block multi-convex in all layer-wise weights and activations. This allows us to develop a new block coordinate descent (BCD) method with convergence guarantee to solve it. Due to the novel formulation and solving method, LPOM only uses the activation function itself and does not require any gradient steps. Thus it avoids the gradient vanishing or exploding issues, which are often blamed in gradient-based methods. Also, it can handle various non-decreasing Lipschitz continuous activation functions. Additionally, LPOM is almost as memory-efficient as stochastic gradient descent and its parameter tuning is relatively easy. We further implement and analyze the parallel solution of LPOM. We first propose a general asynchronous-parallel BCD method with convergence guarantee. Then we use it to solve LPOM, resulting in asynchronous-parallel LPOM. For faster speed, we develop the synchronous-parallel LPOM. We validate the advantages of LPOM on various network architectures and datasets. We also apply synchronous-parallel LPOM to autoencoder training and demonstrate its fast convergence and superior performance.

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence